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WebGL Slower Than Canvas?

19 May 2021

I’ve recently been working on web a graphics project where I played a Canvas API implementation against a WebGL implementation. When running the app in Firefox on Linux, I was surprised to find that the WebGL version was 10-30% slower (in frames per second) than the Canvas version.

After much searching I was able to diagnose and fix the problem, which came down to graphics drivers and browser rendering settings. If your problem is similar to mine, here’s how you might be able to solve it:

  1. Check GPU driver status in the browser.

    In Firefox, navigate to about:support. Ctrl+F Graphics. Look at the WebGL 1 Driver {Renderer,Version} rows. If you don’t see your GPU manufacturer and model in these rows, then you need to install the correct drivers.

    For reference, I’m running a Nvidia GeForce RTX2070. Without drivers, my driver renderer was VMware, Inc. -- llvmpipe (LLVM 9.0.1, 256 bits) and my driver version was 3.1 Mesa 20.1.10.

  2. Install GPU drivers.

    I’m on NixOS, so this was as simple as adding

     nixpkgs.config.allowUnfree = true;
     services.xserver.videoDrivers = [ "nvidia" ];
    

    to my configuration.nix, then running sudo nixos-rebuild switch && reboot.

  3. Confirm driver installation.

    Repeat step 1. If you still can’t see your GPU manufacturer and model, then I can’t help you.

    After step 2, my driver renderer was NVIDIA Corporation -- GeForce RTX 2070/PCIe/SSE2 and driver version was 4.6.0 NVIDIA 455.38.

  4. Enable WebRender.

    In the Graphics section of about:support, check the Compositing row. If it says WebRender, then you’re done. If it says Basic, then you need to enable WebRender.

    Navigate to about:config, move past the warning, and search for gfx.webrender.enabled. Set it to true and restart Firefox. Confirm this change by checking Compositing row in about:support.

Before, each requestAnimationFrame call lasted 14-15ms in my Canvas implementation, but the app was running well below 60fps. Each frame lasted ~10ms in my WebGL implementation, but the framerate was even worse than the Canvas version!

After following these instructions, both my Canvas implementation and WebGL implementation run at 60fps. Canvas’ frame duration didn’t appear to change, but WebGL’s frame duration dropped to ~4ms. Yay!